Tag Archives: squeeze

Simple Debian Squeeze LAMP Config

Want the instant gratification solution?  Scroll down to “All In One” below.

Several of the Linux (Debian Squeeze) / Apache2 / MySQL / PHP (LAMP) configs I’ve seen on the ‘net include complexity you just don’t need (like suEXEC or suPHP).  If you’re setting up a basic server (physical, VPS, Xen, OpenVZ, whatever) and you’re going to be the only person running it, then setting up a LAMP environment is trivial.

This post assumes your server boots and you can log in and that it’s a basic Squeeze install with none of the relevant software pre-installed.  I hate sudo, so I’m going to assume you have either su’d to root (su – root) or that you’ve switched to root via sudo (sudo su – root).  If not, you’ll need to prefix all of these commands with sudo (after setting sudo up).

Although this little guide is for Debian, I think it’ll work unchanged on Ubuntu as well.  This guide also assumes that your server hosts a single website, so nothing fancy with any Apache2 VirtualHosts.

All of the follow steps can be combined, but I like to install by stages so that I can test each element on it’s own, and not get overwhelmed.

One of the big mistakes people new to Debian or Ubuntu do, is they think they have to manually edit config files to get things working.  The Debian packagers spend a lot of time making Debian packages work properly with each other with the absolute minimum manual effort.

Install Apache2

While Apache2 might be a bloated-warthog in the eyes of some system administrators, it’s ubiquitous, reliable, feature rich, well documented and well supported.  You can play with lighttpd, nginx and other options later, but this is LAMP, so let’s install the A.

The default Apache2 install on Debian will try and use the Worker MPM for Apache2.  We want the Prefork MPM when we use PHP5 later, so we’ll specify that straight away.

apt-get install apache2 apache2-mpm-prefork

And that’s it.  Assuming that runs successfully (errors are outside the scope of this walkthrough), you should be able to connect to the web server of your server on port 80 (iptables is also outside the scope of this, but a blank Debian install won’t have any firewalling in the way anyway).

If the install worked, connecting should return a page which says “It works!” and some information about this being the default web page.

Install PHP

Again, PHP gets bad press these days and maybe rightly so, but again it’s well used, well supported and well understood.  It’s probably easier to install it along with Apache2 in reality, because Debian does all the post config work at once then, but if you do it later, you are at least in control of the various stages.

We need to install two things, PHP5 and the Apache2 PHP module (on Debian, this package is libapache2-mod-php).

apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5

and then restart Apache2 (I use the following command, any method that reloads the Apache2 config file works)

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

That’s it.  You don’t need to edit anything, enable anything, configure anything.  Debian handles all that for you.  The default install of Apache2 creates a /var/www directory which it uses as the root for your web site.  If you go to that directory and create a file called test.php, and put this into it,

<?php phpinfo(); ?>

You can then test the PHP5 install has worked by connecting to your web server and requesting the file test.php.  If it asks you to save it, something went wrong (or you didn’t restart Apache2), otherwise you should get a full list of the PHP settings.

NB: Debian installs Suhosin by default.  This should be okay, but it can cause issues with some features of WordPress and phpMyAdmin.

Install MySQL

The MySQL install is the most complex, because you’ll have to create a password!  Otherwise, it’s as simple as the above steps.  As well as MySQL we need to remember to install the PHP5 MySQL module, otherwise we won’t be able to interact with the database.

apt-get install mysql-server php5-mysql

After some packages are downloaded and installed, you’ll be asked to set a password for the MySQL root user.  The dialog says this is not mandatory.  I think it should be.  You should absolutely set this password.  It does not need to match the Linux root user password, and as in all cases, it should actually differ significantly.

Restart Apache2 for good measure, and you’re done.  MySQL will be started, the relevant libraries are installed, and Apache2 / PHP5 / MySQL can all communicate as required.

By default, MySQL won’t be listening on any external interfaces, which is a good thing, so only your website can communicate with it.  Some guides recommend installing phpMyAdmin at this point, and you can if you want, although I prefer not to.

Permissions

In a default Debian install, Apache2 and PHP5 run as the www-data user.  By default, the permissions on /var/www are

drwxr-xr-x root root

That means the web server can’t create any files or directories in /var/www.  That’s a problem when installing things like WordPress which want to create their own config files or .htaccess files.  Because we’re not worried about multiple users on our server, or different customers, it’s safe to set the owner of /var/www to www-data:www-data, and do the same for all files in that directory.  This advice is only true for a server where you don’t mind all the websites running as the same user, but that’s the point of this example anyway!

All In One

The following command will install the whole thing in one go, and all you need to do is set the MySQL password.

apt-get install apache2 apache2-mpm-prefork php5 libapache2-mod-php5 mysql-server php5-mysql

Follow Up Steps

Later on you might want to install additional PHP modules (such as php5-curl, php5-gd, php5-mcrypt), and for sites which you expect to be busy on servers with not much memory you might want to look at using apache2-mpm-worker and FastCGI.

Exim4 (SMTP MTA) + Debian + Masquerading

I love Debian, and Exim4 seems to ‘just work’ for me most of the time, so I tend to use it for my MTA by preference.  Debconf handles the basic options for Exim4 pretty well, and usually I don’t need to mess with anything.

However, on one of my VPS’s I wanted to do what I used to refer to as masquerading.  I use the term to refer to having an SMTP masquerade as a different host on outbound e-mail addresses automatically.  So the server may be fred.example.net, but all outgoing mail comes from user@example.net.  It’s common if you want to handle the return mail via some other route – and for me I do.  My servers are in the darkstorm.co.uk domain, but I don’t want them handling mail for somehostname.darkstorm.co.uk, and I don’t want to have to configure every user with a different address, I just wanted a simple way to get Exim to masquerade.  Additionally, I only want external outbound mail re-writing, mail which is staying on the server should remain untouched.  This allows bob to mail fred on the server, and fred to reply without the mail suddenly going off the server, but if bob mails bill@example.org, then his address is re-written correctly.

I think I spent some time looking at this a couple of years ago, and had the same experience as recently – it’s a bit frustrating tracking down the best place to do it.  Firstly, Exim doesn’t have a masquerade option as such, and the manual doesn’t refer to masquerading in that way.  What it does have is an extensive rewriting section in the config file and support for doing that rewriting in various ways.

On top of this, the Debian configuration of Exim can be a little daunting at first, and how you achieve the configuration may depend on whether you’re using a split config or the combined config.

Anyway, enough rambling, you can get Exim to rewrite outgoing mail / masquerade by setting one macro.  This works on Debian 6 (Squeeze) with Exim4, but I assume it’ll work with Exim4 on any Debian installation.

Create (or edit)

/etc/exim4/exim4.conf.localmacros

Add the following line,

REMOTE_SMTP_HEADERS_REWRITE = *@hostname.example.net ${1}@example.net

Rebuild the Exim config (might not be essential but I do it every time anyway),

update-exim4.conf

and then recycle Exim (reload might work, but I tend to recycle stuff),

/etc/init.d/exim4 restart

That same macro is used for both the single monolithic config file, and the split config file.  It tells Exim that for remote SMTP only, it should rewrite any header that matches the left part of the line with the replacement on the right.  The ${1} on the right matches the * on the left (multiple *’s can be matched with ${1}, ${2}, etc.)

You can supply multiple rules by separating them with colons, such as this,

REMOTE_SMTP_HEADERS_REWRITE = *@hostname.example.net ${1}@example.net : *@hostname ${1}@example.net : *@localhost ${1}@example.net

There are more flags you can provide to the rewrite rules, and you can place rewrites in other locations, but the above will achieve the basic desire of ignoring locally delivered mail, but rewriting all headers on outbound e-mail which match.

Full details of Exim’s rewrite stuff is here.  Details about using Exim4 with Debian can be found in Debian’s Exim4 readme (which you can read online here).

I’m sure there are other ways of achieving this, there’s certainly an option in the debconf config (dc_hide_mailname) which seems hopeful, but it didn’t seem to do anything for me (maybe it only works when you’re using a smart relay?)  Either way, this option does what I wanted, and hey, this is UNIX, there’s always more than one way to skin a cat.

Edit: just had a look at the various Debian package files, and it looks like dc_hide_mailname only works if you’re using a smart relay option for Exim.  If you’re using the full internet host option from Debconf, it never asks you if you want to hide the mailname, and ignores that option when you rebuild the config files.